Personal State is a status that provides a person with complete freedom, the ability to independently determine their life and activities. A Personal State opens up broad prospects for the implementation of its own independent policy of realizing natural rights, sovereignty and conducting international activities. A Personal State is a personal legal jurisdiction and economic system.
The progress of international integration processes, the rapid development of information and financial technologies, the availability of transport have changed human life. If before the beginning of the XX century it was usual for a person to live throughout life within one locality, in the XX Century the geography of human activity expands to the limits of the state, then by the beginning of the XXI Century human activity is increasingly becoming international. Living for several years in different countries, a person can have housing and property in several countries at the same time, staying in one country, remotely work or own an Autonomous business in another — and such a lifestyle is becoming increasingly popular. The introduction of distributed registry technologies further "aggravates" this picture and levels the influence of administrative boundaries on the geography of modern human activity.
Against this background, the state of the institution of citizenship and migration policy of most modern States seem lagging behind and do not meet the conditions of time. There is still no reason to talk about the availability of absolute freedoms. Almost all existing countries are the heirs of States formed as a result of wars of conquest or no less cruel political compromises. In history, there is no example of a free people who were previously not related to any of the States, would gather in one free territory and as a result of free democratic processes would freely form a new state, becoming its free citizens. It can be stated that in most cases in the twenty-first Century the institution of citizenship is the heir of slavery, keeping its certain features.
Today, people are less in need of a stable legal relationship with a particular state. Living within one territory is no longer a reference and, accordingly, the need for access to a range of administrative services and guarantees of the state in conjunction with the obligations to it is becoming irrelevant for an increasing number of mobile people on the planet. States do not fully meet human needs, citizenship as a stable legal link between a citizen and the state is not able to meet all the needs of a citizen, and often appears to be a burden.
The change of nationality or the acquisition of a second nationality, as well as the right of temporary or permanent residence in another state, may not always solve these difficulties. First, the procedures for renunciation of citizenship, acquisition of citizenship and the right of residence are long, complex and bureaucratic. Secondly, during the time that it is necessary to spend on the change of citizenship, the circumstances may change, a person can again change his country of residence and again require cumbersome procedures related to the change of citizenship and legalization of his stay.
It cannot be ruled out that, as a bearer of a certain nationality, a person is forced to bear the burden of political responsibility for the international policy of that state. States may introduce certain approaches to the treatment of citizens of another state, depending on the state of their inter – state relations-the introduction of certain procedures and prohibitions. In practice, a citizen, even if he does not share the policy of his country, may be its hostage in relations with another state.
Obviously, there is a need to take a fresh look at the institution of citizenship, it is necessary to develop new common modern approaches in the field of citizenship and migration, their liberalization, unification and simplification.
The institution of a Personal State could provide a human being with the tools for independent international subjectivity and independence from a sustainable legal relationship with one or more States.
A Personal State is a form of free individual implementation of a person's own policy of realization of natural rights, sovereignty and conduct of international activities.
As an example, though too schematic, the ratio of the Personal State and the state in its classical understanding can be given the ratio of a legal entity and an individual entrepreneur (a private entrepreneur or a self – employed person-depending on the features of national legislation).
Along with a legal entity, an individual entrepreneur has economic legal personality, can be a party to economic and civil contracts with other legal entities or individuals, engage in business activities, have some of the features of a legal entity (Bank account, seal, letterhead, brand name, etc.). At the same time, an individual entrepreneur may not have a team of employees, administrative structure, departments – he alone makes decisions about the activities and is directly engaged in it, and may not have separate property and obligations – all the property and obligations of the individual entrepreneur are, respectively, the property and obligations of the citizen.
Since the decision to declare a Personal State, a person would have gained independence, individual international legal personality, the ability to enter into relations with other States not as a foreign citizen, but as an independent and equal state. Relations with another state would not be based on the institution of the nationality of that state, but on an international Treaty. The subject of such agreement would be the provision of a range of services to the Personal State in the territory of the state in its classical sense (stay in the territory, freedom of movement, protection, the ability to enter into contractual relations with various entities in the territory of the state in its classical sense, the ability to conduct activities, the provision of administrative, medical, educational services, etc.) on certain essential conditions (for a fee (tax), for a certain period, etc.).
The state in its classical sense in relation to the Personal State would acquire the character of a Service State. Continuing to support the institution of citizenship, including for its own "titular" nation, the content, protection and maintenance of its territory, exercising state power on it, the Service State, depending on the state of its own economy and directions of development, would be interested in attracting residents (Personal States), receiving income from this (tax revenues) and integrating them into its own economy.
The development of modern approaches to the relationship with migrants (expats) - Personal States, the provision of opportunities, the policy of hospitality, the availability of conditions for effective integration into the national economy and a clear regulation of these processes at the level of national legislation and at the level of an international Treaty with the Personal State, would serve two purposes.
On the one hand, such an approach would minimize the motivational component of the mass acquisition of the citizenship of a successful state with an appropriate social load, as a consequence, would reduce the possible threats of intervention, blurring of national identity, undermining the constitutional system and the historical way of life of the state, preserving its identity.
On the other hand, the person who made the decision to declare a Personal State, would have the freedom to choose the place of stay and the application of professional and business efforts among the Service States, comparing the social, economic, political, cultural and environmental situation of each of them, as well as the proposed contractual terms for Personal States (the volume of services, duration of cooperation and cost (tax level).
In General, the introduction of such an approach would help to take into account the sphere of interaction between the state and the person to pragmatic cooperation on social and economic issues, would introduce a commercial interest in the cooperation of the Service and Personal State, would promote competition between the Service States for attracting the attention of Personal States and, as a consequence, would.
The identity card of the only citizen of the Personal State is possible by means of registration of the passport of the unified sample.
Modern systems of identification based on human biometric data used by Service States would allow to accurately identify the person presenting the passport, eliminating any risks of unwanted persons on the territory of the Service State, as well as the risks associated with the possible change of name of the passport holder, the replacement of this document, and so on.
One of the generally recognized principles of modern international law is the right of nations to self-determination.
In accordance with the provisions of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, all peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of this right, they freely establish their political status and freely ensure their economic, social and cultural development, and all states participating in this Pact must, in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter, promote the exercise of the right to self-determination and respect this right.
In accordance with the Declaration on the Principles of International Law of October 24, 1970, by virtue of the principle of equality and self-determination of peoples enshrined in the UN Charter, all peoples have the right to freely determine, without outside interference, their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural development, and each state is obliged to respect this right in accordance with the provisions of the Charter, and the methods of exercising the right to self-determination can be the creation of a sovereign and independent state, free accession to or association with an independent state, or the establishment of any other political status.
We will not be able to give at least some serious reason to refute the possibility of the existence of a people in a minimum number of 1 person, as well as reasons for not recognizing the declaration of the existence of such a people. Thus, the existence of the institution of a Personal State and the proclamation of Personal States are seen to be consistent with the principles of international law.
It also follows from the above that non-recognition by any of the existing states of the existence of another state, incl. Personal State does not deny the fact of its political existence.
Progress in the issue of international recognition of Personal States could be ensured by precedents, widespread cases of proclamation of individual states, popularization of the institution of a Personal State, as well as the position of leading world powers and prominent international figures and iconic persons.
One of the additional weighty instruments of recognition of Personal States would be mutual recognition of each other by Personal States. The international unification of Personal States into an Association or a League of Personal States would provide such recognition (by joining a league, a Personal State receives recognition from all members of the league and, in turn, recognizes all personal member states and those who will become its members in the future). The emergence of an impressive number of Personal States and their mutual recognition would be a weighty argument in favor of developing the practice of recognizing Personal States as Service States.
Perhaps, the assumption of the existence of a billion states on the planet will be somewhat unaccustomed to understanding. In fact, there is nothing supernatural about it. We are entering an era when a person, for example, has access to an unlimited number of currencies, dozens and hundreds of which appear daily.
Office work and accounting in the migration authorities of service states in connection with the need to interact with a large number of Personal States would not be difficult, given the possibilities of modern information technologies and the uniformity of procedures.
In practice, the "meeting" of the service state and the Personal State could look like this. The service state approves a model international (public) contract with individual states. Crossing the border of a service state for the first time, a citizen (he is also the head) of a Personal State would have to sign a document on accession to this standard (public) agreement. Formally, at the same time, at this moment, the service state would recognize a Personal State. After that, a citizen of a Personal State would receive a mark in his passport - an imprint of the stamp of the border service of the service state indicating the date of entry, contract number, and length of stay. And these are all the necessary procedures.